As quoted in:

Herold, Benjamin. “Comparing Paper-Pencil and Computer Test Scores: 7 Key Research Studies.” Education Week. 4 February 2016.

“Students who had greater access to technology in and out of school, and had teachers that required its use for school assignments, used technology in more powerful ways and scored significantly higher on the NAEP writing achievement test.

“Such clear and direct relationships are few and far between in education—and these findings raise many implications for states and districts as they shift to online assessment.”